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In the development for the theory of weak interactions one important papers was the 1967 paper of Weinbergs where he combined a theory of leptons with a spontaneous breaking of the SU(2) x U(1) local or gauge symmetry. A dis Salam had done very similar work. It was not immediately taken notice of because of the lack of experimental verification. However, an ...


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The earliest presentation of this idea that I know of was by Lewis and Tolman in 1909: Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1909, 44: 709–726 https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Principle_of_Relativity,_and_Non-Newtonian_Mechanics Another early presentation of this concept seems to have been by von Laue in 1917: von Laue, M. (1917). ...


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It would be odd that Laue would have thought up the light clock rather than Einstein as this relied upon his physical insight into the nature of gravity - the equivalence principle. I'd also say that the idea is not 'owned' by Einstein - got ideas are free; but that it is credited to him. edit @Ben Crowell: I said it seems 'odd' not that it's impossible. ...


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This is precisely why this question belongs to HSM.SE with both feet! Your vision of what happened is deeply misleading, possibly requiring time travel. Recall the GWS 79 prize citation: "for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the ...


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It is called verification from experimental results. The GSW theories fitted mathematically the observed particle zoo symmetries and explained the approximate symmetries seen in the data. The Higgs model at the time of award was not the only model for getting the results of symmetry breaking, it could be a different process inducing the breaking , as in ...


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This sounds like the physics equivalent of the Library of Babel by the Argentine author, Jorge Luis Borges and similarly, as fictive. Perhaps in the future we can imagine some such 'Encyclopadia Principae Physicae' hyperlinked to every journal ever printed and instantly accessible to everyone and running to millions of pages and many thousands of volumes and ...


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This is a case where it seems that the symbol should be old, from Euler's or Gauss's time at least, but it is not. It does not appear in Dickson's History of the theory of numbers (1919), whose entire first volume is dedicated to divisibility, nor in Cajori's comprehensive History Of Mathematical Notations (1928), and not even in van der Waerden's Moderne ...


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I think that the history of how we write fractions is helpful here. Although fractions were known in ancient times - the Babylonians and Egyptians used them - the modern notation for them began with the system of bhinnarasi by Aryabhatta around 5th Century AD and then Brahmagupta and (c. 626) and Bhaskara (c. 1150). In their works, they formed fractions by ...


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