26

Jabir ibn Hayyan was the first to describe processes such as liquefaction, crystallisation, distillation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation and filtration. He also did an early classification of chemical elements around their properties which seems pertinent, and noted that "a certain quantity of acid is necessary in order to neutralize a given amount ...


9

Islamic science and mathematics experienced a boom during middle ages, contributions in mathematics, mechanics, astronomy and medicine were especially prominent, and had a deep impact on Renaissance Europe. There are many historical articles on Muslim Heritage: Science, see also links on Muslim Philosophers, Mathematicians & Scientists. In mathematics ...


7

In mathematics, perhaps the best known is "The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing" by the Persian scholar Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī. The English words "algebra" and "algorithm" derive from this. The date is around 820.


5

Etymology Quite a few sources say that Aristotle was the progenitor of the term, after his use of energeia (a Latin transliteration of ἐνέργεια). However, one source notes that Heraclitus used a similar word, en-ergon, years prior. Heraclitus wrote: "En-ergon is the father of everything, king of all things and, out of it, all forms of contrast originate. ...


4

In ancient Indian texts like Vedas and puranas there are so called philosophies or concepts of energy. Actually vedas and puranas are considered as religious texts, but these texts contain many hidden facts and knowledge(I doubt how many of you agree with this statement. Some of the examples of science in Vedas are, Vedic mathematics, Astrology, ...


4

I would like to mention: J. L. Berggren, Mathematik im mittelalterlichen Islam, 2010 M. Paty, Rationalités comparées des contenus mathématiques, 2002, Colloque des sciences arabes Michael Morgan: Lost History: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Scientists, Thinkers, and Artists, 2008 and especially the Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, edited by R. ...


3

Another great contribution to astronomy came from al-Sūfī (903-986, better known as Azophi in the West) with his book Book on the Constellations (Here is a copy of his book). In his book, he gave details of more than a thousand stars based on Ptolemy's Almagest and his own observations and provided beautiful illustrations of constellations. Book on the ...


2

Possible sources : For Dioscorides, we have Moses Hamon that owned a famous Ms of De Materia Medica (later known as : Vienna Dioscurides) and sold it, through Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq (a Flemish writer, herbalist and diplomat that served as ambassador to the Ottoman Empire in Constantinople) to the Holy Roman Emperor. Regarding geometry, the first Latin ...


2

As you yourself indicated, many works of mediaeval medicine from the Islamic world were translated into Latin, and they were indeed among the first printed books in Europe. Apart from Avicenna and the others mentioned by you there is (for example) ar-Rāzī (Rhazes) and his Liber continens. So obviously there was a strong influence of Muslim writers about ...


2

From Wikipedia: Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham (Arabic: أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم‎; c. 965 – c. 1040 CE), better known by the Latinization Alhazen or Alhacen or as Ibn al-Haytham (ابن الهيثم), was an Arab Muslim polymath and philosopher who is widely considered as one of the most influential scientists of all time. Referred to as the ...


2

Weight is an old concept related to energy that was discussed both in not-so-Ancient China, Ancient India, or the Islamic Golden Age. It meets each and every of your criteria : Conservation of weight: the belief appeared in all of these cultures that weight was to be conserved on a global scale. ("Pudgala" for the Jain, just "matter" of al-Tusi) ...


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