11

"Corollary" is similar to the word "bonus": a little extra (i.e. an extra proposition coming from a demonstration). The term Euclid uses is πόρισμα "porism," which Liddell-Scott-Jones cite as akin to πορίζω in the sense of "to find (money)." For instance, after I.15: Πόρισμα ἐκ δὴ τούτου φανερὸν ὅτι, ἐὰν δύο εὐθεῖαι ...


6

Yes, it seems that there are linguistic reasons1 why positive definite works better than positively definite. 1BTW, for that reason, I think that it was a mistake to migrate this question from the English Language and Usage (EL&U) StackExchange to the History of Science and Mathematics (HSM) StackExchange. It seems that when we are picking adjectives ...


5

This is a complement to Michael's excellent answer. The source of Boethius and subsequent use is most likely Proclus's commentary on Euclid's Elements, where he organizes and names various concepts concerning demonstrations (given, lemma, case, reduction, enunciation, exposition, construction, proof, reductio, etc.), apparently extracting some from the ...


4

As far as I know, the first appearance of the concept of positive/negative definiteness (and of indefiniteness) is in the article 271 of Gauss' Disquisitiones Arithmeticae about ternary forms. Of course the Disquisitiones are written in Latin, but maybe the original context can help in clarify the terminology also in English. Gauss wrote Quaedam formae ...


4

The ACL wiki contains a section on the state-of-the-art systems over time for the main NLP tasks: http://aclweb.org/aclwiki/index.php?title=State_of_the_art Many of these pages need to be updated but at list there is some attempt of collaborative work to construct a clear overview. The only survey article the point to dates from 1997 (Survey of the state ...


4

A contibution to a discussion that ended nearly four years may appear quixotic but it is difficult to let stand an answer which, though accurately summing up Boyer's views on the subject, is completely out of date and misleading. The state of the question of the origin and evolution of fractions still today is to be found in the acts of an international ...


3

According to Carl Boyer, in his text A History of Mathematics, the earliest record we have regarding fractions in ancient Egypt comes from the Ahmes Papyrus, popularly known as the Rhind Papyrus, circa 1650 BCE. The scribe, Ahmes, tells us that it is derived from a prototype of the Middle Kingdom, circa 2000-1800 BCE, and it is possible that some of this ...


1

No, at least not in the academic sector. It it now commonly held knowledge that it is not one or the other, but the interaction between nature and nurture that shapes an individual. The "debate" therefore is currently how much of each contributes to any given developmental mechanism. However, I cannot guarantee that some independent special interest group ...


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