It's not just "neural computing research," but a number of other scientific fields such as "high definition" video that were spurred by the threat of competition from Japan, real or imagined, in the 1980s and 1990s. In the 1950s, it was the threat of "Sputnik," and Russia's (temporary) lead in the space program that spurred a renewed American interest is ...


I am unsure as to the parameters of what is being asked, so this may not answer it. First, "data-driven problem" is a term linked to the recent rise of data science and projecting it too far into the past risks modernizing people's intentions. Second, biological evolution need not work by "competition" between two or more species, natural selection applies ...


The idea of using Gaussian mixtures was popularized by Duda and Hart in their seminal 1973 text, Pattern Classification and Scene Analysis.

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