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Presumably the recognition that water, ice and vapor are different states of the same substance goes back to prehistoric times: e.g. boiling water over a fire or observing the melting of ice. The early history of the phase diagram in physics is connected to Gibbs, Maxwell and van der Waals: the van der Waals equation (1873) implies that there are coexisting ...


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There is a very nice site SnowCrystals.com run by Kenneth Libbrecht, a professor of physics at Caltech, which covers both physics and history, and hosts many captivating images, videos and more. According to Libbrecht's Snowflake History, the first written mention is by Han Yin c. 135-150 BC: "Flowers of plants and trees are generally five-pointed, but ...


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lmgtfy google cache of mimivanderhave.com 1945 The first double-pane, insulated window was introduced That's without attribution; door and window claims From single to double pane windows… The true evolution of double pane windows originated in 1913 when the Andersen Lumber Co. became the first to manufacture wood window frames. In 1932 they ...


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It depends on what counts as "discovery". Interestingly, optical anisotropy was discovered before the elastic one, and the first anisotropic "material" modeled was... the luminiferous ether. Bartholinus discovered double refraction in calc-spar, a type of calcite, back in 1669, and Huygens showed in 1690 that two rays arising from refraction by calcite are ...


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Davidovits' theory appears to be moving slowly from fringe toward mainstream. Also the possibility of a mixed technique i.e. some carved stones along with cast blocks offers a compromise in the debate. why were the pyramids not made wholly of these cast stones? After all it is easier to cast a stone than to cut and hoist it into place. The answer, ...


1

Zinc is principally known anciently from the production of brass which was widespread in the ancient world. The way that brass is made is that copper is combined with calamine (zinc oxide, a common mineral) and then reduced in situ with charcoal. Most ancient civilizations that had well-developed copper metallurgy readily discovered how to make brass as well,...


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