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1

There is a detailed account of Riemann's physical thinking in Klein's Development of mathematics in the 19th century, see also Bernhard Riemann’s ‘Dirichlet’s Principle’. One of the most prominent examples is the use of potential theory in his dissertation (1854) and in Theory of Abelian Functions (1857) to prove theorems about algebraic functions on Riemann ...


4

This is not mathematics, but Newton invented the ridges on coins to prevent theft. I am not sure if he invented it while he was director of the Royal Mint, but I suspect so. In good ol times, coins were made of valuable metals (in fact, they were worth their value). Thieves would scrape the coins around the edge, thus making them smaller (but hardly ...


2

Emanuel Lasker is better known as a world chess champion, but he was a mathematician too. David Hilbert was one of his doctoral advisors and he published at least four mathematical articles. And he also wrote a drama, Vom Menschen die Geschichte (together with his brother Berthold), as well as several philosophical books.


2

See also The forgotten mathematical legacy of Peano Volume 537 / 2019 Szymon Dolecki, Gabriele H. Greco Dissertationes Mathematicae 537 (2019), 1-77 MDOI: 10.4064/dm769-4-2018 Published online: 28 February 2019 (free download)


8

Actually, Peano did much more original work than that. Among other things, he gave the modern definition of vector spaces and linear maps; defined the first space-filling curve; stated and proved the Peano existence theorem (on the existence of solutions to certain initial value problems); and developed the logical notation that would be later used by ...


14

It is discussed in multiple manuscripts, letters and publications from 1675 to 1701. According to Fracois Ziegler's post on MO Did Leibniz really get the Leibniz rule wrong?, Leibniz originally thought $d(uv)=du\,dv$ in a special case, but corrected his mistake the same month in the manuscript Methodi tangentium inversae exempla (November 11, 1675). Later ...


6

Leibniz states the product rule in his first paper on the calculus (1684). It's in the middle of the fist page (page 467) as can be seen here: https://www.maa.org/press/periodicals/convergence/mathematical-treasure-leibnizs-papers-on-calculus-differential-calculus and also in English translation (top of page 2) here: http://www.17centurymaths.com/contents/...


3

Following the advice of Dave Renfo in comments, I looked up the 1990 interview with Tụy in the Mathematical Intelligencer. The article is fascinating, and I'd recommend it. Sadly, it gives a pretty brief account of the founding of the Society, and none of the journal. Koblitz: And you were able to do mathematics during all this? Tụy: Yes, in fact our ...


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