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There have been several versions of the memoir. The last version was sent by Galois to his friend Auguste Chevallier. just before the duel and was published by Camille Jordan. For details see the book.


The "clean, modern form" of Cauchy's ideas were arrived at after many generations of refinement. This process necessarily takes time: the ideas need to propagate throughout the research community, have to be understood, assimilated, and put to use. Then, simplifications, generalizations and variations of the idea are found, often by incorporating ...


Inventing new things is difficult. Explaining your inventions to other people is difficult as well. In many cases, the way you think about your solution is quite different from how you explain it to other people so that they can understand. Sometimes, it requires a significant amount of effort and ingenuity to come up with the "right" way to ...

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