33

Yes, it is true. Fermat's own copy was used in the publication of Diophantus by Fermat's son Samuel, and he included Fermat's notes. The original with Fermat's handwriting is lost. https://www.joh.cam.ac.uk/library/special_collections/early_books/fermat.htm#:~:text=When%20reviewing%20his%20copy%20of,to%20fit%20in%20the%20margin. (The page with his most ...


9

Using planimeters to illustrate Green's theorem is a relatively recent didactic development. Neither Green, nor Cauchy, nor Riemann had any interest in the instruments, and vice versa, planimeter developers did not involve something so abstract in explaining their "principle" mathematically. The kinds of mathematical proofs given can be seen in ...


6

I have not been able to find any primary sources that confirm that Gerwien's first name was Paul. Gerwien published two papers in Crelle's "Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik", where he is listed in the table of contents as P. Gerwien. High-quality scans of both these publications are available from the Göttingen Digitization Center. P....


3

I am capturing information from a comment as a starting point for a community wiki answer to which others can add earlier citations. Harvey L. Garner and Jon S. Squire, "Iterative Circuit Computers", in Proceedings of the 1962 Workshop on Computer Organization, Baltimore, 1962, pp. 156-181. (Google scan). On page 165: $W(p)$ is the number of ...


1

He's saying that the hypothesis of "cases of equal probability" is taken in situations ("instances") where the "theoretical picture" used is "definite" enough that we can deduce this hypothesis and not merely assert that this is the case.


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