7 votes
Accepted

How did Jenner and his contemporaries understand vaccination before germ theory of disease?

The germ theory dates to late middle ages, and was favored by Avicenna among others, although it did not gain much currency in Europe until the mid 19th century. But it was not needed to discover the ...
Conifold's user avatar
  • 76k
6 votes
Accepted

Who identified the four basic types of animal tissue?

This is only a partial answer. A good source on the history of animal morphology is Russell's Form and Function, freely available on Project Gutenberg. It seems that the crucial step from Bichat's 21 ...
Conifold's user avatar
  • 76k
5 votes
Accepted

Explanation of the three peaks in Google ngram for 'syphilis'

I don't know if anyone can give the "correct rationale" for the peaks, but we can make some educated guesses. I agree with your explanations for the rise and peaks in the 1870s/80s and 1940s. The ...
HDE 226868's user avatar
  • 8,453
5 votes

Did anyone with formal medical education become a known theoretical physicist?

Hermann von Helmholtz not only had a formal education in medicine but even made his living of it for some time. Further in the past this was quite common among naturalists, philosophers and ...
Alexandre Eremenko's user avatar
5 votes
Accepted

What does this 1200 AD eye diagram say?

The following is a summary and translation. The manuscript OP had is what the detailed eye looks like according to Hunayn ibn Ishaq an influential Nestorian Christian translator, scholar, physician, ...
SPARSE's user avatar
  • 248
4 votes

When was it first discovered that face masks protect against disease?

Medicine is not my area of expertise, but starting with American and Canadian publications I was able to trace back the use of protective masks in modern evidence-based medicine to Germany. The ...
njuffa's user avatar
  • 6,516
4 votes

"Stone of Folly" based on maybe finding and removing brain tumors?

Trephination has an ancient history. In the right hands, it may have been a useful tool to deal with depressed skull fractures and subdural hematomas. Many of the patients did survive, rather ...
Mike Serfas's user avatar
4 votes

Did anyone with formal medical education become a known theoretical physicist?

One name that comes to mind is Alfred Kleiner, Einstein's doctoral advisor, although he was more distinguished as an experimentalist than a theoretician. He graduated as a medical student from the ...
Conifold's user avatar
  • 76k
4 votes

Has anything survived of the work of alleged science journalist and medical doctor 'Adolph Klein', allegedly born 1829 in Merseburg?

Following the link given in Francois Ziegler's answer I found a Dr. Klein among the signers of a parliamentary petition calling for the modification of section 175 of the German Criminal Code: ...
njuffa's user avatar
  • 6,516
4 votes

Has anything survived of the work of alleged science journalist and medical doctor 'Adolph Klein', allegedly born 1829 in Merseburg?

The entry is wholly drawn from an ostensibly autobiographical portrait inserted in the “humorvoll” who’s who Das geistige Berlin (1897, p. 245; reprint): Klein, Ad., Dr. med. und phil., geboren zu ...
Francois Ziegler's user avatar
4 votes
Accepted

Who coined the term "immune system"?

Translated from G. Toepfer, Historisches Wörterbuch der Biologie (2016), vol. 3, pp. 226–227: Immune system (...) The discovery of a specific immune system in vertebrates took place in the ...
Francois Ziegler's user avatar
4 votes
Accepted

What did Kaspar contribute to the gene therapy for spinal muscular atrophy?

The Spinal Muscular Atrophy volume gives some historical information on the disease and its treatment in the opening sections. Their timeline and attribution of credit is rather different from that of ...
Conifold's user avatar
  • 76k
3 votes

which country launched N-95 mask for the first time?

According to the article The untold origin story of the N95 mask: The first single-use N95 “dust” respirator as we know it was developed by 3M, according to the company, and approved on May 25, ...
nwr's user avatar
  • 6,859
3 votes

At what point in the history of medicine did doctors start having a net positive effect?

The problem with this question is that nobody can measure this "net impact", especially in the past. Very ancient (stone age) remains show that surgeries were performed, and not only on the limbs but ...
Alexandre Eremenko's user avatar
3 votes
Accepted

Study of embryos

Some references; for Ancient science, see : James Wilberding, Embryology, Ch.20 of Georgia Irby (editor), A Companion to Science Technology and Medicine in Ancient Greece and Rome (2016); see ...
Mauro ALLEGRANZA's user avatar
3 votes
Accepted

What is the "Pix Hispana" that Niccolo Cabeus refers to?

Pix or pitch made from the resin of various coniferous trees was in common use since antiquity, and variants of this substance, often named after their place of origin, were described by Roman writers ...
njuffa's user avatar
  • 6,516
3 votes

Was it understood in the first century AD that some diseases are sexually transmitted?

This is outside my area of expertise. From a cursory reading of the literature I get the impression that at present there is no clarity on what sexually transmitted diseases known today were actually ...
njuffa's user avatar
  • 6,516
3 votes

Why doesn't John Snow's Voronoi diagram look like one? How was the diagram made? (distance to cholera-spreading water pump in 19th century London)

More of comment. It's easier to comment on an observation with a diagram. In the diagram above you'll see I've added some hand drawn quasi circular shapes. The red and blue shapes highlight pumps. ...
Fred's user avatar
  • 348
3 votes
Accepted

"Just before he died, (Gregor) Mendel requested that an extensive autopsy be done." Why? Was he simply "very enthusiastic for all kinds of research"?

The first comprehensive biography of Gregor Mendel was Hugo Iltis, Gregor Johann Mendel: Leben, Werk und Wirkung, Berlin: J. Springer 1924. On p. 195: Aus Furcht vor dem Scheintod und um die Diagnose ...
njuffa's user avatar
  • 6,516
2 votes

When was it first discovered that face masks protect against disease?

After reading answer by njuffa I was surprised masks were not worn earlier, particularly during the era when the now discredited miasma theory, that bad smells cause disease, was prevalent. If you ...
Fred's user avatar
  • 348
2 votes
Accepted

What is "female seed" in Galen's work?

Galen's theory of conception, and its relationships to Hippocratic Aristotelian and other ancient theories, is discussed by Boylan in The Galenic and Hippocratic Challenges to Aristotle's Conception ...
Conifold's user avatar
  • 76k
2 votes

Why did the APA require a NDA from DSM-5 task force members?

The National Institute of Mental Health Data Archive (NDA) makes available human subjects data collected from hundreds of research projects across many scientific domains. The NDA provides ...
C.K's user avatar
  • 21
2 votes

Was ibn Sina the only Muslim physician who influenced modern medicine?

As you yourself indicated, many works of mediaeval medicine from the Islamic world were translated into Latin, and they were indeed among the first printed books in Europe. Apart from Avicenna and ...
fdb's user avatar
  • 3,475
2 votes

Doctrine of the sterilazio magna

My reading of that article suggests a slightly idiomatic translation as "Kill Them All." While that may be poor long-term strategy in a war amongst peoples, the point raised in this medical ...
Carl Witthoft's user avatar
1 vote

18th century childbirth — does anyone know anything about the tools or process?

Here I am quoting some interesting episodes of earlier researchers: An example- When a birth began to go horribly wrong, a cesarean section was the last option. There is one story of an American ...
drvrm's user avatar
  • 323
1 vote

18th century childbirth — does anyone know anything about the tools or process?

There are very knowledgable people on the c18-L and MEDMED-L listserves. You have to sign up on the web pages Google sends you to. The manager of MEDMED-L is Monica Green, [email protected], a ...
kimchi lover's user avatar
  • 2,555
1 vote
Accepted

What did William Harvey think the stroke volume of a heart was?

I now see that this was answered on the next page of the book. Harvey's "ounces" were today's ounces, and his drams were "fluid drams", each one eighth of an ounce. It isn't explained why he ...
Mark Eichenlaub's user avatar
1 vote

How effective were pre-thermometer devices in e.g. detecting fever?

Before the invention of thermometer, there was no notion of "temperature", as a physical quantity, a number. (To define a physical quantity one needs to specify a way to measure it). Only qualitative ...
Alexandre Eremenko's user avatar
1 vote

Looking for source of foods associated with specific humors

For those curious about the origins and legacy of theory of humors, the Wikipedia article https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humorism offers a good description, even mentioning some food and wine ...
Margaret Friedland's user avatar

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