13

This is an interesting case that might have never been discovered had it not been for another effect of high fluoride levels in water. Here's the (relatively well-known) history. In 1901, after graduating from dental school, Dr. Frederick McKay moved from the east coast USA to Colorado Springs, Colorado to start a dental practice. When he reached there, he ...


12

The question asked in the title is not at all the same as the fist question in the body of the text. Because any meaningful answer to the latter seemingly presupposes (wrongly in my opinion) the existence of a mechanism to ascertain if a non-human animal has made an abstract connection in the scientific consensus, I will simply note that paternal care is ...


11

Throughout most of the 19th century, the commonly held scientific belief about the health impact of dietary fat was that fat, along with protein, tended to prevent obesity, by causing satiety. The best known proponent of this hypothesis was Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, who wrote The Physiology of Taste in 1825. In this period, cardiovascular disease was ...


9

This article in Slate, Who Says You Need Eight Glasses a Day?, traces the history of this idea. Quick summary: [T]he [Slate] Explainer has uncovered evidence of the 8x8 myth going all the way back to 1796, in a German text by Dr. Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland called Makrobiotik. The book includes an anecdote about the surgeon general to the king of Prussia, ...


8

Let's start with the Wikipedia page on the history of cancer: The earliest known descriptions of cancer appear in seven papyri, discovered and deciphered late in the 19th century. They provided the first direct knowledge of Egyptian medical practice. Two of them, known as the "Edwin Smith" and "George Ebers" papyri, contain descriptions of cancer written ...


8

I think the easier answer is that asthma was not really universally seen as a psychosomatic illness. To understand why, one must problematise the definition of disease and put dominant versions of what counts as disease in context. As a side note, this is hardly exclusive to asthma - the debate over the definition chronic fatigue syndrome / myalgic ...


7

Although the original humorism put forth by Hippocrates and Galen based on Egyptian and Mesopotamian influences was rejected by science as a general theory explaining all diseases and disabilities, a later version restricted to temperaments in psychology, that removed their link to supposed "bodily fluids", survives until today. The psychological shift can ...


6

Vaccination was made compulsory in England and Wales in 1853, with 1853 Vaccination Act : Vaccination against smallpox was one of the first major achievements of modern medicine, stemming from Edward Jenner's experiments in 1796. [...] The reform of the English Poor Law in 1834, followed by the Registration Act of 1836, gave England a basis for a public ...


6

Yes. I only have one source so far (unfortunately), but it does give quite a bit of information. It's the aforementioned NY Times book review, accessible here. What is says is amazing: German scientists (not necessarily Nazis) were the first to do research on many different facets of cancer. Much of this was pre-Third-Reich, in the glory days of late 19th-...


6

I agree with Mauro's comment that Aristotle was first to take systematic account of the work of his predecessors. Many of his scientific works, Physics, Meteorology, etc., start with detailed description of his predecessors' opinions on the subject, along with Aristotle's own analysis and criticism. Early sources are mostly known in fragments, but nothing ...


5

I don't know if anyone can give the "correct rationale" for the peaks, but we can make some educated guesses. I agree with your explanations for the rise and peaks in the 1870s/80s and 1940s. The Contagious Diseases Acts were quite controversial since their passage, and the press for their repeal gained quite a lot of publicity. Additionally, penicillin was ...


5

The claim that Egyptians were aware of the benefits of using cold objects appears to be from the Edwin Smith Papyrus, a famous Egyptian scroll on ancient medicine. I found the abstract of a paper here that goes into some detail: As long ago as 300) BC, the use of cold compresses to treat compound skull fractures and infected wounds were mentioned in an ...


4

I'll add to HDE's answer that modern spread of the idea that emotional stress "causes" cancer is largely due to "eclectic medical doctor" Eli Jones, who named "worriment of mind" number one cause of cancer in his 1908 book. It is clear from the context that he meant it as a number one cause of cancer spread, but the distinction is lost on modern adherents, ...


4

One name that comes to mind is Alfred Kleiner, Einstein's doctoral advisor, although he was more distinguished as an experimentalist than a theoretician. He graduated as a medical student from the University of Zurich in 1872, and obtained bis Dr. Med in 1874. During his Berlin studies in 1873-1879 he became attracted to physics, and worked as an assistant ...


4

Following the link given in Francois Ziegler's answer I found a Dr. Klein among the signers of a parliamentary petition calling for the modification of section 175 of the German Criminal Code: Petition an die gesetzgebenden Körperschaften des deutschen Reiches behufs Abänderung des § 175 des R.-Str.-G.-B. und die sich daran anschliessenden Reichstags-...


4

The entry is wholly drawn from an ostensibly autobiographical portrait inserted in the “humorvoll” who’s who Das geistige Berlin (1897, p. 245; reprint): Klein, Ad., Dr. med. und phil., geboren zu Merseburg an der Saale am 18. Mai 1829, studirte in Leipzig 1848–51, praktizirte in Königsberg in Ostpreussen 1859–70. Vermählte sich 1860 mit Fräulein Marie ...


4

Translated from G. Toepfer, Historisches Wörterbuch der Biologie (2016), vol. 3, pp. 226–227: Immune system (...) The discovery of a specific immune system in vertebrates took place in the 20th century.89 The immune system concept was already used sporadically in the first decades of the 20th century. Thus in 1909 E. Meyer and E. Emmerich reported ...


4

Hermann von Helmholtz not only had a formal education in medicine but even made his living of it for some time. Further in the past this was quite common among naturalists, philosophers and mathematicians, but designation of profession as "theoretical physicist" narrows the time frame. There is no doubt however that Helmgoltz was a theoretical physicist, ...


4

The Spinal Muscular Atrophy volume gives some historical information on the disease and its treatment in the opening sections. Their timeline and attribution of credit is rather different from that of KEI, especially where Kaspar is concerned. Gene therapy for SMA was made possible by identifying the responsible gene in 1990 by Gilliam’s group in New York ...


3

The problem with this question is that nobody can measure this "net impact", especially in the past. Very ancient (stone age) remains show that surgeries were performed, and not only on the limbs but also on the scull. Perhaps it helped in some cases and harmed in other cases, but how can one perform any statistics of this sort? Even in the recent time, we ...


3

Some references; for Ancient science, see : James Wilberding, Embryology, Ch.20 of Georgia Irby (editor), A Companion to Science Technology and Medicine in Ancient Greece and Rome (2016); see Aristotle (GenAnim 773a1–2) and Galen (On the Formation of the Fetus 54.13–14). For Early Modern science, see : Paula Findlen, Anatomy Theaters, Botanical Gardens, ...


3

The Egyptian medical Ebers papyrus (c. 1550 BC. ) mentions, or can be argued to mention what we now would call 'cancer'. When cancer became 'cancer' (I do not know) Here is a link to The Papyrus Ebers (1930) by Cyril. P Bryan. The plants prescribed as treatments for the illnesses is described in the 21 paragraphs of the last section of the Ebers Papyrus.


3

Possibly China. This seems to take the idea that emotions can contribute to illness quite seriously, but it does talk a bit about the history of the idea. According to the author, traditional Chinese medicine, going back a couple thousands years (that time given here), states that emotions can influence diseases of all source. There are some books written ...


3

The answer depends on definition of "documented". There are documented cases of diseases that we now know transmit from other vertebrates to humans going as far back as 18th century BC, Babylonian codex Eshuna mentions “mad dogs” most likely infected by rabies. The Bible mentions an epidemic of (what appears to be) plague among the Philistines around 1320 BC,...


2

As you yourself indicated, many works of mediaeval medicine from the Islamic world were translated into Latin, and they were indeed among the first printed books in Europe. Apart from Avicenna and the others mentioned by you there is (for example) ar-Rāzī (Rhazes) and his Liber continens. So obviously there was a strong influence of Muslim writers about ...


2

I was able to trace some information back to The Ultraviolet Disinfection Handbook, by James R. Bolton and Christine A. Cotton. The relevant passages can be found here on Google Books. A timeline of ultraviolet disinfection begins on page two of the introduction. It notes Ritter's 1801 discovery of UV light, and then several other early experiments. However,...


2

My reading of that article suggests a slightly idiomatic translation as "Kill Them All." While that may be poor long-term strategy in a war amongst peoples, the point raised in this medical article is that failure to completely wipe out the enemy (pathogen, bacteria, whatever) can lead to the remaining organisms becoming resistant to the drug treatment. ...


1

I now see that this was answered on the next page of the book. Harvey's "ounces" were today's ounces, and his drams were "fluid drams", each one eighth of an ounce. It isn't explained why he identified "half an ounce" with "three drams", but possibly he found "three eighths of an ounce" cumbersome and unnecessarily precise, he was imprecise about other ...


1

Before the invention of thermometer, there was no notion of "temperature", as a physical quantity, a number. (To define a physical quantity one needs to specify a way to measure it). Only qualitative differences could be discussed: "hot", "cold", "fever" etc. Fever is easily detected without any thermometer. By physical contact of the person who detects it (...


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