26

Jabir ibn Hayyan was the first to describe processes such as liquefaction, crystallisation, distillation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation and filtration. He also did an early classification of chemical elements around their properties which seems pertinent, and noted that "a certain quantity of acid is necessary in order to neutralize a given amount ...


10

The interaction of physics and artillery begins with Galileo (there was no physics to talk about before that time except the statics). There are pictures in the books before Galileo which show completely unrealistic trajectories of projectiles. Galileo developed a computational device which he called the Geometric and Military Compass, which he produced and ...


9

There is a chapter on Byzantine science in a recent Cambridge History of Science volume, see also this paper. As to why I'll articulate the non-controversial part that gets drowned in more detailed accounts. Byzantium was driven by two forces, imperial power and orthodox Christian culture, and neither one supported science. Medieval orthodox Christianity ...


8

Al-Khwarizmi was a ninth-century mathematician who created many of the most basic techniques for how we perform calculations. His greatest contributions were in the realm of developing formal, systematic ways of doing arithmetic and solving equations. His works mark the beginning of what we today understand as Algebra. One of his principal achievements in ...


6

From Polymnia Athanassiadi, Byzantine Commentators on the Chaldaean Oracles : Psellos and Plethon, in Katerina Ierodiakonou (editor), Byzantine Philosophy and its Ancient Sources (2004), page 237-on. Page 248 : In a letter to Theodora Palaeologina, Gennadios Scholarios offers the following information on [Georgius Gemistos] Plethon's spiritual grounding: ...


5

The standard work on this subject is: http://books.google.co.uk/books/about/Die_hochsprachliche_profane_Literatur_de.html?id=YC5wxKY_8wsC&redir_esc=y To be honest, the amount of real scientific progress in the whole mediaeval period (in Western Europe, Byzantium and Islam) was slight, compared with what came before (classical antiquity) and after (...


4

There are several prominent mathematicians of the medieval era, most notably Leonardo of Pisa, or more commonly called "Fibonacci". He developed the Fibonacci sequence and he also introduced the Hindu - Arabic numeral system to Europe in the 13th century. As a result, the Roman numeral system was discarded in favor of the former. Link: https://www....


3

Historians believe that the extant version of Problemata was not penned by Aristotle personally, but “while the Problemata is not the genuine Aristotelian work, it nevertheless contains an element derived from such a work”. Problemata XXXII.5 discusses breathing under water, including the oft quoted passage interpreted as referring to a diving bell:”Why do ...


3

For Aristotle : Problemata Book XXXII, 960b,30-31 : “divers to respire equally well by letting down a cauldron”. Parts of Animals, Book II, 659a,5 : “Some divers, when they go down into the sea, provide themselves with a breathing-machine, by means of which they can inhale the air from above the surface while they remain for a long time in the water.” For ...


3

This is a semi-legendary story with shifty details told to showcase Frederick's enlightened ways with Muslims and intellectual prowess. There might be some historical basis to it, although Muslim historians had reasons to exaggerate and embellish considering how friendly Frederick was compared to other Christian crusaders. In any case, the original sources ...


2

As you yourself indicated, many works of mediaeval medicine from the Islamic world were translated into Latin, and they were indeed among the first printed books in Europe. Apart from Avicenna and the others mentioned by you there is (for example) ar-Rāzī (Rhazes) and his Liber continens. So obviously there was a strong influence of Muslim writers about ...


1

This sounds to me like an apocryphal story rather like the story that over Plato's Academy there was a sign saying 'let no-one ignorant of geometry enter here'. It's most likely a story dreamt up by mathematicians to promote the study of mathematics. I wouldn't put much credence in it.


1

Parallax was always measured by measuring the angular distances between stars. If it changes during the year, you see the parallax due to the Earth motion. The accuracy is limited by the accuracy of your angle-measuring device. A typical such device at the time of Brahe could measure to 1' or perhaps 0.5' (1' is the average resolution of the human eye). This ...


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