26

Jabir ibn Hayyan was the first to describe processes such as liquefaction, crystallisation, distillation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation and filtration. He also did an early classification of chemical elements around their properties which seems pertinent, and noted that "a certain quantity of acid is necessary in order to neutralize a given amount ...


12

Islamic science and mathematics experienced a boom during middle ages, contributions in mathematics, mechanics, astronomy and medicine were especially prominent, and had a deep impact on Renaissance Europe. There are many historical articles on Muslim Heritage: Science, see also links on Muslim Philosophers, Mathematicians & Scientists. In mathematics ...


10

One has to distinguish static pressure from the dynamic pressure in a flow. Static pressure was understood to some extent by Archimedes and later Hellenistic writers like Hero and Ctesibius. At least their texts that we know do not contain mistakes: all that they wrote was essentially correct. Dynamic pressure was very poorly understood before the modern ...


10

Regarding logic, the answer is a mixed one. The development of medieval logic is wide area of study; see at least SEP's entries : Medieval Theories of the Syllogism Medieval Theories of Consequence Medieval Theories of Modality Medieval Theories: Properties of Terms and more ..., as well as : Dov Gabbay & John Woods (editors), Handbook of the ...


9

In mathematics, perhaps the best known is "The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing" by the Persian scholar Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī. The English words "algebra" and "algorithm" derive from this. The date is around 820.


9

Al-Khwarizmi was a ninth-century mathematician who created many of the most basic techniques for how we perform calculations. His greatest contributions were in the realm of developing formal, systematic ways of doing arithmetic and solving equations. His works mark the beginning of what we today understand as Algebra. One of his principal achievements in ...


9

There is a chapter on Byzantine science in a recent Cambridge History of Science volume, see also this paper. As to why I'll articulate the non-controversial part that gets drowned in more detailed accounts. Byzantium was driven by two forces, imperial power and orthodox Christian culture, and neither one supported science. Medieval orthodox Christianity ...


6

From Polymnia Athanassiadi, Byzantine Commentators on the Chaldaean Oracles : Psellos and Plethon, in Katerina Ierodiakonou (editor), Byzantine Philosophy and its Ancient Sources (2004), page 237-on. Page 248 : In a letter to Theodora Palaeologina, Gennadios Scholarios offers the following information on [Georgius Gemistos] Plethon's spiritual grounding: ...


5

The standard work on this subject is: http://books.google.co.uk/books/about/Die_hochsprachliche_profane_Literatur_de.html?id=YC5wxKY_8wsC&redir_esc=y To be honest, the amount of real scientific progress in the whole mediaeval period (in Western Europe, Byzantium and Islam) was slight, compared with what came before (classical antiquity) and after (...


5

I made a little research for this community: I took the volume of "Cantor's papers on set theory", and selected from the Index those medieval scholasts whom Cantor mentions in his writings on set theory. Here is the list: Albertus Magnum Augustin Ben Akiba Boetius Ibn Sina (Avizena) Quintillianus Nicolaus von Cusanus Origenus Rufinus ...


5

English translations of Ibn Al-Haytham's optical treatises are available from Proceedings of the Celebrations of 1000th Anniversary by the Hamdard National Foundation of Pakistan. The mismatch in the OP quotes is not surprising as Ibn Al-Haytham's text is very confusing to a point of apparent inconsistency, and it is hard to understand what his ultimate ...


4

Trephination has an ancient history. In the right hands, it may have been a useful tool to deal with depressed skull fractures and subdural hematomas. Many of the patients did survive, rather amazingly when one considers it is at least nominally brain surgery done in 6500 B.C. (Also note that many ancient cultures, armed with opium, nightshade, cannabis, ...


4

I would like to mention: J. L. Berggren, Mathematik im mittelalterlichen Islam, 2010 M. Paty, Rationalités comparées des contenus mathématiques, 2002, Colloque des sciences arabes Michael Morgan: Lost History: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Scientists, Thinkers, and Artists, 2008 and especially the Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, edited by R. ...


4

There are several prominent mathematicians of the medieval era, most notably Leonardo of Pisa, or more commonly called "Fibonacci". He developed the Fibonacci sequence and he also introduced the Hindu - Arabic numeral system to Europe in the 13th century. As a result, the Roman numeral system was discarded in favor of the former. Link: https://www....


4

Historians believe that the extant version of Problemata was not penned by Aristotle personally, but “while the Problemata is not the genuine Aristotelian work, it nevertheless contains an element derived from such a work”. Problemata XXXII.5 discusses breathing under water, including the oft quoted passage interpreted as referring to a diving bell:”Why do ...


3

For Aristotle : Problemata Book XXXII, 960b,30-31 : “divers to respire equally well by letting down a cauldron”. Parts of Animals, Book II, 659a,5 : “Some divers, when they go down into the sea, provide themselves with a breathing-machine, by means of which they can inhale the air from above the surface while they remain for a long time in the water.” For ...


3

Another great contribution to astronomy came from al-Sūfī (903-986, better known as Azophi in the West) with his book Book on the Constellations (Here is a copy of his book). In his book, he gave details of more than a thousand stars based on Ptolemy's Almagest and his own observations and provided beautiful illustrations of constellations. Book on the ...


2

From Wikipedia: Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham (Arabic: أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم‎; c. 965 – c. 1040 CE), better known by the Latinization Alhazen or Alhacen or as Ibn al-Haytham (ابن الهيثم), was an Arab Muslim polymath and philosopher who is widely considered as one of the most influential scientists of all time. Referred to as the ...


2

This is a semi-legendary story with shifty details told to showcase Frederick's enlightened ways with Muslims and intellectual prowess. There might be some historical basis to it, although Muslim historians had reasons to exaggerate and embellish considering how friendly Frederick was compared to other Christian crusaders. In any case, the original sources ...


2

As you yourself indicated, many works of mediaeval medicine from the Islamic world were translated into Latin, and they were indeed among the first printed books in Europe. Apart from Avicenna and the others mentioned by you there is (for example) ar-Rāzī (Rhazes) and his Liber continens. So obviously there was a strong influence of Muslim writers about ...


1

This sounds to me like an apocryphal story rather like the story that over Plato's Academy there was a sign saying 'let no-one ignorant of geometry enter here'. It's most likely a story dreamt up by mathematicians to promote the study of mathematics. I wouldn't put much credence in it.


1

If you read the papers under with keywords "Holomorphic dynamics", "Mandelbrot set", and MLC conjecture, you discover that quadratic functions are still a hot research topic. A. Douady and J. Hubbard recalled in the late 90s, that when in the early 80-s they were asked "what problems are you working on now ?", they replied "we study quadratic polynomials (of ...


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