26 votes
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Contributions to chemistry from medieval Arabia

Jabir ibn Hayyan was the first to describe processes such as liquefaction, crystallisation, distillation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation and filtration. He also did an early classification of ...
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  • 1,795
12 votes
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I'm looking for books of Muslim scholars/scientists who have had some influence in the development of modern science

Islamic science and mathematics experienced a boom during middle ages, contributions in mathematics, mechanics, astronomy and medicine were especially prominent, and had a deep impact on Renaissance ...
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  • 67.1k
10 votes
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How was difference in water pressure perceived in ancient cultures or the middle ages?

One has to distinguish static pressure from the dynamic pressure in a flow. Static pressure was understood to some extent by Archimedes and later Hellenistic writers like Hero and Ctesibius. At least ...
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10 votes
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How much did scholasticism contribute to logic and mathematics?

Regarding logic, the answer is a mixed one. The development of medieval logic is wide area of study; see at least SEP's entries : Medieval Theories of the Syllogism Medieval Theories of Consequence ...
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9 votes

I'm looking for books of Muslim scholars/scientists who have had some influence in the development of modern science

In mathematics, perhaps the best known is "The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing" by the Persian scholar Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī. The English words "algebra" and "...
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  • 8,625
9 votes
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Who is considered the greatest mathematician between the years 400 AD and 1300 AD?

Al-Khwarizmi was a ninth-century mathematician who created many of the most basic techniques for how we perform calculations. His greatest contributions were in the realm of developing formal, ...
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  • 1,985
9 votes

Was there any exact science or mathematics in the Eastern Roman Empire?

There is a chapter on Byzantine science in a recent Cambridge History of Science volume, see also this paper. As to why I'll articulate the non-controversial part that gets drowned in more detailed ...
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  • 67.1k
7 votes

Did Ibn Al-Haytham believe that the Moon reflects sunlight or that it is self-luminous?

English translations of Ibn Al-Haytham's optical treatises are available from Proceedings of the Celebrations of 1000th Anniversary by the Hamdard National Foundation of Pakistan. The mismatch in the ...
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6 votes
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Who was Elissaeus Judaeus?

From Polymnia Athanassiadi, Byzantine Commentators on the Chaldaean Oracles : Psellos and Plethon, in Katerina Ierodiakonou (editor), Byzantine Philosophy and its Ancient Sources (2004), page 237-on. ...
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5 votes

Was there any exact science or mathematics in the Eastern Roman Empire?

The standard work on this subject is: http://books.google.co.uk/books/about/Die_hochsprachliche_profane_Literatur_de.html?id=YC5wxKY_8wsC&redir_esc=y To be honest, the amount of real scientific ...
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  • 3,335
5 votes

How much did scholasticism contribute to logic and mathematics?

I made a little research for this community: I took the volume of "Cantor's papers on set theory", and selected from the Index those medieval scholasts whom Cantor mentions in his writings ...
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4 votes

"Stone of Folly" based on maybe finding and removing brain tumors?

Trephination has an ancient history. In the right hands, it may have been a useful tool to deal with depressed skull fractures and subdural hematomas. Many of the patients did survive, rather ...
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4 votes

I'm looking for books of Muslim scholars/scientists who have had some influence in the development of modern science

I would like to mention: J. L. Berggren, Mathematik im mittelalterlichen Islam, 2010 M. Paty, Rationalités comparées des contenus mathématiques, 2002, Colloque des sciences arabes Michael Morgan: ...
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4 votes

Who is considered the greatest mathematician between the years 400 AD and 1300 AD?

There are several prominent mathematicians of the medieval era, most notably Leonardo of Pisa, or more commonly called "Fibonacci". He developed the Fibonacci sequence and he also introduced the Hindu ...
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4 votes
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When was the diving bell invented?

Historians believe that the extant version of Problemata was not penned by Aristotle personally, but “while the Problemata is not the genuine Aristotelian work, it nevertheless contains an element ...
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3 votes

When was the diving bell invented?

For Aristotle : Problemata Book XXXII, 960b,30-31 : “divers to respire equally well by letting down a cauldron”. Parts of Animals, Book II, 659a,5 : “Some divers, when they go down into the sea, ...
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3 votes

I'm looking for books of Muslim scholars/scientists who have had some influence in the development of modern science

Another great contribution to astronomy came from al-Sūfī (903-986, better known as Azophi in the West) with his book Book on the Constellations (Here is a copy of his book). In his book, he gave ...
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  • 31
2 votes

I'm looking for books of Muslim scholars/scientists who have had some influence in the development of modern science

From Wikipedia: Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham (Arabic: أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم‎; c. 965 – c. 1040 CE), better known by the Latinization Alhazen or Alhacen or as Ibn al-...
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  • 813
2 votes
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What mathematical problems did the Sicilians need Arab help with in 1229? Did the Arabs solve these problems?

This is a semi-legendary story with shifty details told to showcase Frederick's enlightened ways with Muslims and intellectual prowess. There might be some historical basis to it, although Muslim ...
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  • 67.1k
2 votes

Was ibn Sina the only Muslim physician who influenced modern medicine?

As you yourself indicated, many works of mediaeval medicine from the Islamic world were translated into Latin, and they were indeed among the first printed books in Europe. Apart from Avicenna and ...
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  • 3,335
1 vote

What mathematical problems did the Sicilians need Arab help with in 1229? Did the Arabs solve these problems?

This sounds to me like an apocryphal story rather like the story that over Plato's Academy there was a sign saying 'let no-one ignorant of geometry enter here'. It's most likely a story dreamt up by ...
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1 vote

Exploring problems about quadratic function (in one variable) across the ages

If you read the papers under with keywords "Holomorphic dynamics", "Mandelbrot set", and MLC conjecture, you discover that quadratic functions are still a hot research topic. A. Douady and J. Hubbard ...
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