46

It's not exactly the war, but the Nazi regime more generally that caused the decline of Göttingen. When the Nazis came to power in 1933, they started implementing antisemitic measures quite quickly. An important step in the Nazi policy was what is now dubbed 'the great purge of 1933', which (basically) aimed to expel all Jews from positions in government or ...


36

The Russians picked up a similar number of "rocket scientists" as the West, but the lesser ones. These were taken to newly-constructed but isolated scientific facilities at places like Gorodomiya Island on a lake northwest of Moscow. They were housed with Russian scientists in relatively comfortable (by Russian standards) facilities, near their place of ...


15

The most famous mathematicians who were the members of NSDAP are Ludwig Bieberbach and Oswald Teichmüller.


12

It's worth noting that we can't just pin it down to "The Nazi regime" and we may have to just say "The Nazis." Take for instance the case of Landau. He could not be purged as such but when he tried to teach in Fall 1933 he faced a student boycott led by Oswald Teichmuller. A letter from Landau sets the scene. On 2 November, about 11.15, ...


9

Many German scientists were either captured by the Soviet army or were surrended to the Soviets after their capture by Western armies. All of these scientists were enslaved by the Soviets and forced to work on various scientific projects. The experience of one of Germany's greatest scientists, Manfred von Ardenne, is representative. After voluntarily ...


9

The mathematician who would have been famous had he not been a member of the SS / Nazi Party and died in a POW camp is, I think, Gerhard Gentzen. He invented/rigourously described natural deduction and sequent calculus but is well written out of the history In philosophy circles, in debates between analytic philosophers (logic) and continental philosophers, ...


8

Unlike the short-range rockets which are all solid fueled, making a solid-fuel long range rocket is very challenging. The main technical problem is that the fuel block which is very large can develop a crack under mechanical and thermal stress. The flame will immediately spread into the crack, and the whole thing will explode. The second difficult problem ...


8

Julius Pawel Schauder was a very famous mathematician. He worked in Lwow (Lviv, Lvov, Lemberg). He is remembered for the "Leray-Schauder degree", and "Leray-Schauder Theorem", this is a cornerstone of the important area called Non-linear Functional Analysis, "Schauder basis" and many other things. He worked in functional ...


7

For the second one, see: Maria Georgiadou, Constantin Carathéodory: Mathematics and Politics in Turbulent Times (2013), page 584: the mathematician Schauder [...]. The name is wrongly spelled as "Schouder". Juliusz Paweł Schauder (September 21, 1899, Lwów, Austria-Hungary – September 1943, Lwów, Occupied Poland).


7

On my opinion, there are two important reasons: a) German government did not press the matter. Nobody convinced it that the thing is plausible and important. (In the US there was a lobby who could convince the US president in this. Szilard, V. Bush and Einstein played an important role). b) I think even if they wanted, they could not do it. They simply ...


7

“Cammaille” or “Camaille” sound like misspellings for Jean Cavaillès. This seems confirmed by CERN Bulletin Issue No. 18/1999, which on page 15 (numbered 2) quotes Catherine Chevalley: Heisenberg the physicist who “apparently tried, from within Germany, to save Cavaillès”$^1$. $^1$Catherine Chevalley: in her preface to “Werner Heisenberg” (see ...


7

It never got off the drawing board (literally). I have a few sources that suggest that the scientists never got beyond some basic technical drawings and schematics related to the Sun Gun. Admittedly, they aren't the best sources I could hope for, but they agree, so I'm inclined to believe them. The idea was conceived by Hermann Oberth in 1923 (and ...


7

This is not a definitive answer, bu I did not find any proof that the Nazis had prohibited any German scientists from keeping a Nobel Prize. The story of how their medals were kept safe breaks into two parts: the first part is why they sent their medals to Denmark, and the second is why they were dissolved. There seems to be few years gap between the two ...


6

After the Second World War, Operation Paperclip was started to bring certain top German scientists to America. Many of these had worked on military applications for the Nazis (developing rockets etc.), and some may have been involved with the Nazis in other capacities as well. A short list of the more famous scientists includes Wernher von Braun Kurt Tank -...


6

Yes. I only have one source so far (unfortunately), but it does give quite a bit of information. It's the aforementioned NY Times book review, accessible here. What is says is amazing: German scientists (not necessarily Nazis) were the first to do research on many different facets of cancer. Much of this was pre-Third-Reich, in the glory days of late 19th-...


5

MacLane's article "Mathematics at Göttingen under the Nazis" is a very vivid first hand account of the time 1931-33. MacLane writes: ... in 1933 eighteen mathematicians left or were driven out from the faculty at the Mathematical Institute in Göttingen which shows how quickly the department disintegrated after the Nazis came to power.


4

The following is taken from H.Casimir, "Haphazard Reality: Half a Century of Science," Amsterdam University Press, 2010, pp. 207-210. I added some paragraph breaks since the text is hard to read otherwise. Heisenberg came to Holland in 1943. I believe he made use of the same arrangement for cultural exchange to visit his old friends. Although on ...


4

He introduced groupoids and did some work on quadratic forms and quaternions, but I don't think he is considered a famous scientist: Heinrich Brandt. However, he was a very active Nazi, being a member of some Nazi organisations and most notably, he was a Förderndes Mitglied der SS. (According to German Wikipedia, referencing Harry Waibel, Diener vieler ...


2

According to Boris Chertoks, Rockets and People, a four volume memoir on the Soviet rocket programme and the most cited text in this area, several hundred Nazi era German scientists were brought into the programme and whilst he mentions contributions by them during their first year there in 1946, they hardly figure in subsequent years. The official record is ...


2

By accident I stumbled upon a recent article about the topic in a german science journal: http://www.spektrum.de/magazin/warum-es-hitlers-atombombe-nie-gab/1427403 It is based on a the following publication: Popp. M.: Misinterpreted Documents and Ignored Physical Facts: The History of "Hitler’s Atomic Bomb" Needs to be Corrected. In: Berichte zur ...


2

According to one history that I've read, denazification was done more thoroughly by the former Soviet Union than by the Western powers, although mainly on class lines. The Weatern Powers were concerned more with the growing 'threat' of communism hence it's likely Operation Paperclip was seen as non-controversial as they saw it simply as harnessing German ...


1

Yes, there was definitely "Jewish science" in Nazi thought. Deutsche Physik attempted to purge Jewish influence from science. It was not entirely successful, in that while many Jews fled Germany and could not, of course, teach physics, they were unable to purge Heisenberg, a German but deeply involved in the physics they denounced. Freud also came ...


1

As regards the Soviet's quick progress on the bomb please read Dark Sun which is Richard Rhodes second book on the making of the atomic bomb. Early on he describes the wholesale shipping of plane loads of secrets to the soviets by their well respected U.S patriot spies here. The reasons given are well considered but unmentioned is Hitler's impatience which ...


1

Given enough time and resources, the Germans would have produced a bomb. What held them back was firstly that they were persecuting a large section of their existing scientific and engineering community (many literally going up the chimney) - either for their political views (socialists and communists) or because of their ethnic background (Jews). The ...


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