10

It is a blunder, but there is a saving grace to it, even two. Nicotiana is the Latin name of tobacco, and it was in use as early as 16th century, and not just by botanists. Moreover, for the first 50 years tobacco was seen as a medicinal herb (after its primary use by American Indians) rather than a recreational drug. Fletcher in The History of Nicotine ...


6

Amanda Gefter's recent article in Nautilus takes a very unambiguous position on the question: There was just one person who wasn’t happy about the reunion: Wiener’s wife. Margaret Wiener was, by all accounts, a controlling, conservative prude— and she despised McCulloch’s influence on her husband. McCulloch hosted wild get-togethers at his family ...


5

We should note that the underlying evidence behind the spiced up modern titles like "seat of the mind, "seat of intelligence", etc., is generally very obscure, and Wikipedia's phrasing is copied almost verbatim from an old and sketchy paper of Gross. SEP's recent account is more ambiguous as to what it was that Alcmaeon thought the brain did: "There is ...


2

Some functions of the brain are actually easier to discover than functions of the heart or kidneys or liver, for example. To do this you hit a human at the head with a mallet (wooden hammer) and see what happens. When s/he recovers her or his consciousness, ask him or her to describe his/her experience. (Disclaimer: I do NOT recommend to anyone to perform ...


2

Turings works are highly formal and hardcore mathematical. Actually, not even a simple mathematician would understand it, if he is not on a similar area. The Turing-test is a very different thing from the Turing-machines. The Turing-machines aren't about consciousness, they are about computability. Turing reached very… surprising results, from a ...


2

I make this answer tentatively since I cannot find the document, an autobiographical chapter by Lettvin I read some years ago which discussed among other things this situation. Lettvin had a whole book available online, but searching I can't find it. Basically, Lettvin claimed that Pitts and McCulloch were not sufficiently sympathetic to socialism, so far ...


1

According to discover magazine: Tobacco kills hundreds of thousands of people every year but the addictive substance has a complex history. For many Native Americans tobacco has been ritually for hundreds of years. Now researchers have shown that they were smoking tobacco a thousand years before European fur-traders arrived ... and For many native people, ...


1

As far as I remember, there was some explanation in 'The History of the theories of aether and electricity", Vol. 1.


1

No, at least not in the academic sector. It it now commonly held knowledge that it is not one or the other, but the interaction between nature and nurture that shapes an individual. The "debate" therefore is currently how much of each contributes to any given developmental mechanism. However, I cannot guarantee that some independent special interest group ...


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