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6

There are no published papers where such interpretation is explicitly made. Born's Nobel lecture mention first appears in his celebrated Quantenmechanik der Stossvorgange (1926, Zeitschrift fur Physik 38, 803-827), also with no reference. According to Pais, well-known Einstein's biographer, the inspiration came from Einstein's never published remarks about ...


4

There was no need to measure the intensity directly to determine that the photoeffect is independent of it. One could vary intensity by moving the metal plate closer to or further away from the source. How intensity falls with the distance is well-known. This is what Lenard did in his 1902 experiments that prompted Einstein's 1905 work. If there was a need ...


3

Darrigol's History of Optics names Barrow (1669) and Huygens (1653) as giving semi-verbal case by case variants of the lens formula before Halley, with Molyneux being the first to publish in 1692. Halley (1693) is credited as the first who wrote the formula algebraically. Dijksterhuis in Lenses and Waves gives detailed description of Huygens's Dioptrica (...


2

It depends on what counts as "discovery". Interestingly, optical anisotropy was discovered before the elastic one, and the first anisotropic "material" modeled was... the luminiferous ether. Bartholinus discovered double refraction in calc-spar, a type of calcite, back in 1669, and Huygens showed in 1690 that two rays arising from refraction by calcite are ...


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