13

The question asked in the title is not at all the same as the fist question in the body of the text. Because any meaningful answer to the latter seemingly presupposes (wrongly in my opinion) the existence of a mechanism to ascertain if a non-human animal has made an abstract connection in the scientific consensus, I will simply note that paternal care is ...


7

Although the original humorism put forth by Hippocrates and Galen based on Egyptian and Mesopotamian influences was rejected by science as a general theory explaining all diseases and disabilities, a later version restricted to temperaments in psychology, that removed their link to supposed "bodily fluids", survives until today. The psychological shift can ...


7

Galton's 1883 mention of "muscular memory" quoted by OED is not its earliest occurrence. The loose idea had common currency at the time, mostly based on self-introspection and common observations, combined with mixing older mentalistic concepts with freshly prominent "psychophysics" (a prototype of psychophysiology) championed by Fehner since 1860. Hillard,...


5

We should note that the underlying evidence behind the spiced up modern titles like "seat of the mind, "seat of intelligence", etc., is generally very obscure, and Wikipedia's phrasing is copied almost verbatim from an old and sketchy paper of Gross. SEP's recent account is more ambiguous as to what it was that Alcmaeon thought the brain did: "There is ...


2

We do not really know. The association comes from ancient medicine of humors, black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood, four supposed bodily fluids. Considering that "phlegm" does not exist and black and yellow bile are the same substance in modern view it is hard to say why semi-fictional "fluids" were associated with observed phenomena, perhaps they were ...


2

The earliest quotation of "muscular memory" the OED gives is: 1883 F[rancis] Galton [1822-1911] Inq[uiries into] Human Faculty 106 which gives an example from painting: There is abundant evidence that the visualising faculty admits of being developed by education. The testimony on which I would lay especial stress is derived from the published ...


1

See e.g.: James Irwin, Galen on the Temperaments (1947). You have to follow the link from Hippocrates’ ideas of humors, or bodily fluids, as a part of character, though the modifications of the later physician, [Galen], into a doctrine of “temperaments” as a semi-scientific study of the larger field of character study. The Greek theory of four elements has ...


1

I now see that this was answered on the next page of the book. Harvey's "ounces" were today's ounces, and his drams were "fluid drams", each one eighth of an ounce. It isn't explained why he identified "half an ounce" with "three drams", but possibly he found "three eighths of an ounce" cumbersome and unnecessarily precise, he was imprecise about other ...


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