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18

Unlike Einstein, Planck did not quantize electromagnetic waves themselves, only the exchanged energies, and even them only statistically. So the other two questions have no satisfactory answer because he was not dealing with specifics of emission/absorption at the level of individual quanta. The quanta were meant as mathematical fictions for the purposes of ...


13

It seems not. See: A.Douglas Stone, Einstein and the quantum: The quest of the valiant Swabian (2013): [page 6] Planck was the first major figure to recognize Einstein’s seminal 1905 work on relativity theory, and he became Einstein’s greatest champion in the world of science and one of his closest personal friends. [page 83] [Einstein's 1905 paper on ...


13

Bose derived the black body radiation formula in early 1924 by considering the ideal gas of light quanta. Nothing could be further from Planck's mind in 1900. The idea of light quanta did not appear until Einstein's 1905 photoeffect paper, in 1908 he thought of them as vortices in EM field rather than localized energy packets, and in 1911 remarked that the ...


10

It is difficult to say what Max Planck really thought on the topic, but I suspect that there is nothing special here about Max Planck: exclusion of women was common at that time. In many German and other European universities women were explicitly excluded by university regulations. Apparently a professor could make an exception for some particular student, ...


8

See How did Planck derive the black body radiation formula without using the Bose statistics? for general circumstances of Planck's discovery. Specifically, Planck was trying to reproduce the expression for entropy of an ideal oscillator involved in the original derivation of the black body radiation law. To do so, he had to assume that energy is split into "...


7

For some detail, see : John L. Heilbron, The Dilemmas of an Upright Man : Max Planck As Spokesman for German Science (1987), page 37, regarding Planck's attitude towards women and academic life. Regarding Boltzmann's student, Lise Meitner, see page 38-39 : [After Boltzmann's suicide in 1906] Meitner went to Berlin, where with Planck's help she obtained ...


4

You should really read Douglas Stone's "Einstein and the Quantum: The Quest of the Valiant Swabian." It's a brilliant work insofar as Prof. Stone shows precisely how Planck went about deriving the eponymously named Planck's law and why the quantum revolution did not beging with Planck but with Einstein. In the book Prof. Stone (Head of Applied Physics at ...


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