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Poincare refers to the Lie's solution of the so-called problem of space, a.k.a. the Helmholtz , or Riemann-Helmholtz, or Helmholtz-Lie problem of space, which amounts to characterizing all manifolds (originally, only 3-dimensional) with free mobility of figures (roughly, homogeneity and isotropy). In modern terms, free mobility amounts to constant Riemannian ...


6

From the Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics site : PENCIL OF LINES. Desargues coined the term ordonnance de lignes, which is translated an order of lines or a pencil of lines [James A. Landau]. Boyer's A History of Mathematics (1968, p. 396) also attributes this terminology to Desargues. From the section on Blaise Pascal, when ...


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Laguerre geometry is the geometry of Laguerre plane, and it was introduced by Laguerre, who defined it as the geometry of the oriented lines and circles in the real Euclidean plane (modern definition is as an incidence geometry of parabolas and lines). It was studied classically using the so-called cyclographic mapping, which can indeed be defined via ...


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It is hard to prove that the answer is negative, but have this in mind: a friend who helped Einstein a lot (and who co-wrote two articles with him) while Einstein was trying to formulate the General Theory of Relativity was Marcel Grossmann, who was a geometer (his PhD thesis was about Non-Euclidean Geometry and he wrote two textbooks on Descriptive Geometry)...


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This is a question about English terminology. As others on here have pointed out, the French terminology is different. The original meaning of the English word “pencil” is a fine brush; this is also the meaning of French pinceau (as opposed to French "crayon" = English "pencil"). According to the Oxford English Dictionary the earliest English attestation of ...


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