15

Archimedes' books, Stomachion and The Method of Mechanical Theorems were lost until rediscovered in 2006. The only known copy is the Archimedes Palimpsest. These two texts comprise many theorems. The Method describes Archimedes' very early use of Riemann sums to compute areas and a variation of Dedekind cuts (via a pair, one a strictly monotonically ...


9

The earliest journals were multidisciplinary, they were published by academies since the second half of 17th century. Before that time, communication was only by books and letters. Letters sometimes were copied and circulated. The first French, English and German journals were: Journal des s├žavans, 1665 (published papers in all sciences and humanities) ...


7

I did once write an email to Robert Geroch, because an unpublished paper of his was listed as a bibliographical reference in a paper of Hajicek, which contained a few theorems regarding non-Hausdorff spacetimes. He apparently had no recollection of this paper, and it was never published. I assume there are many other such papers, the myriad of unpublished ...


7

The Rogers-Ramanujan identities? The formulas have a curious history, having been proved by Rogers (1894) in a paper that was completely ignored, then rediscovered (without proof) by Ramanujan sometime before 1913. The formulas were communicated to MacMahon, who published them in his famous text, still without proof. Then, in 1917, Ramanujan accidentally ...


4

Having looked through a number of quantum mechanics papers from the era, it is pretty clear that, as @M.Farooq points out, what Dirac is using in the supposed paper-of-origin is just an italic $h$, which he redefines as Plancks' constant (who originally used the $h$) divided by $2\pi$. So, that is for 1926. In 1931, Dirac is still doing the same thing (see, ...


4

It is true that after 1914 (and the "Foundations of General Relativity" article), Einstein only published a few articles, exclusively replies to criticism, in the Annalen der Physik. The major reason why he shifted away from that journal was simply because he was elected in 1914 to membership in the Prussian Academy of Science. There he could publish ...


2

I'd be willing to bet that quite a number of theorems were lost simply due to the Library of Alexandria getting destroyed. Take a look at this History Stack Exchange question and some of the answers. Particularly where it mentions that all mathematics before Euclid was lost, and that the mathematics of that age wasn't really surpassed until the 19th ...


2

We can find the first peer review procedures as early as the mid-19th century when the importance of scientific journals increased. As Aileen Fyfe and Noah Moxham could show in their analyses of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (2019) and Alex Ciscar in his book on scientific journals (2018), first referee-reports can be found as early as ...


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