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As is often the case, nobody was first, but both early and modern estimates of the surface temperature are based on comparisons to the black body radiation, the modern value is about 5800 K. The solar corona is however much hotter, several million K. That was discovered by Grotrian (1939) and independently Edlen, who noticed that the observed spectral lines ...


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There is an indirect connection between the works of Lenard and the Curies. This link is exactly the work of Röntgen and the influence it had. Let me expand on this a bit. Lenard was unhappy that the public attributed the discovery of X-rays entirely to Röntgen. He believed that he should also be acknowledged, because Röntgen's discoveries were made by ...


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I was able to trace some information back to The Ultraviolet Disinfection Handbook, by James R. Bolton and Christine A. Cotton. The relevant passages can be found here on Google Books. A timeline of ultraviolet disinfection begins on page two of the introduction. It notes Ritter's 1801 discovery of UV light, and then several other early experiments. However,...


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See listing here: Index of Early Bremsstrahlung Articles The earliest items are: patents filed by Tesla in 1891 and 1892. And papers (by others, not Tesla) in Philosophical Magazine in 1891.


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Radio navigation was used on a large scale during the "Battle of Britain" in WWII, to direct the fighter planes to the enemy bomber formations. Of course, they experimented much earlier than that, even during WWI, but practical use on a large scale started during WWII. See Wikipedia article "Radio navigation".


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Maxwell did indeed criticize Weber’s law for electric force in 1864 based on a confusion: “mechanical difficulties, however, which are involved in the assumption of particles acting at a distance with forces which depend on their velocities are such as to prevent me from considering this theory as an ultimate one”. The “mechanical difficulties” refer to the ...


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