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There have been several versions of the memoir. The last version was sent by Galois to his friend Auguste Chevallier. just before the duel and was published by Camille Jordan. For details see the book.


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The term `phase' appears to have been coined by J. Willard Gibbs: ``In considering the different homogeneous bodies which can be formed out of any set of component substances, it is convenient to have a term which shall refer solely to the composition and thermodynamic state of any such body without regard to its size or form. The word phase has been chosen ...


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Yes, there are at least four somewhat-different things that have either been called a "principle of permanence" historically, or might be called so currently. The easiest to explain (and legitimize) is in complex analysis, more often nowadays called the Identity Principle. It had also been called "The Principle of Permanence of Analytic ...


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I've come to the conclusion that the Wikipedia article is simply wrong, and I've completely rewritten it (permalink to original). It described the Identity Theorem, not any kind of "Principle of Permanence". The Wikipedia article was clearly based on this MathWorld article; the Wikipedia article's other citations were either about Peacock's ...


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Best I could determine after a searching for a couple of hours, this function was first introduced in the following publication, a scan of which is made available by the Bibliothèque nationale de France: P. Langevin, "Magnétisme et théorie des électrons," Annales de chimie et de physique, 8:5 (1905), 70-127. On page 117 one finds: Le moment ...


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