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The interaction of physics and artillery begins with Galileo (there was no physics to talk about before that time except the statics). There are pictures in the books before Galileo which show completely unrealistic trajectories of projectiles. Galileo developed a computational device which he called the Geometric and Military Compass, which he produced and ...


8

Here is a partial translation of a Russian article about the history of semiconductors (part that addresses Soviet contributions): 1948-1950. Not only in the United States, but also in other countries there have been scientific research in the field of semiconductors. For instance, a Soviet physicist V.E. Loshkarev as early as in 1946 discovered the bipolar ...


5

lmgtfy google cache of mimivanderhave.com 1945 The first double-pane, insulated window was introduced That's without attribution; door and window claims From single to double pane windows… The true evolution of double pane windows originated in 1913 when the Andersen Lumber Co. became the first to manufacture wood window frames. In 1932 they ...


4

I think the resources listed above are good background references but if you want to know how logic was introduced to actual electronic equipment then consider Claude Shannon. At the age of 21, writing his MIT Master's degree thesis, he laid out the methods of how electrical applications of Boolean logic can carry out any logical or numerical process. This ...


4

Leonardo thought it was Archimedes (287-212 BC) who invented the cogwheel gears. This would make a neat story, but history is rarely neat. In a similar matter we know that Archimedes did not exactly invent the “Archimedes’s screw”, but rather perfected it, which led to its wide use in the Hellenistic period. One can speculate that something similar happened ...


3

Historians believe that the extant version of Problemata was not penned by Aristotle personally, but “while the Problemata is not the genuine Aristotelian work, it nevertheless contains an element derived from such a work”. Problemata XXXII.5 discusses breathing under water, including the oft quoted passage interpreted as referring to a diving bell:”Why do ...


3

For Aristotle : Problemata Book XXXII, 960b,30-31 : “divers to respire equally well by letting down a cauldron”. Parts of Animals, Book II, 659a,5 : “Some divers, when they go down into the sea, provide themselves with a breathing-machine, by means of which they can inhale the air from above the surface while they remain for a long time in the water.” For ...


3

The best answer to that question is the following book: The steam engine of Thomas Newcomen by L. T. C. Rolt, J. S. Allen 1977 Moorland Pub. Co. ; New York : Science History Publications, To summarize what I learned from this book. The boilers did not generate enough steam pressure to move pistons. You needed to use the weight of the atmosphere for the ...


3

In physics, the four most important developments had nothing to with war or the preparation of war: Newtons calculus and his theory of gravitation, Maxwells equations, Einsteins theory of special and general relativity, Heisenbergs Matrix Mechanics in QM.


3

Not only war but preparations to war, military-related research had very large influence on the development of science and technology. Of the recent examples I mention GPS, Internet, space exploration, not even speaking of nuclear energy. GPS and satellite navigation in general were originally developed for military purposes, and most importantly the ...


2

Plato already distinguished between different professions and also different intellectual capacities in his Republic. His master discipline was the statesman who placed all professions in the right place in the city - read republic - so that they can best flourish. This is his conception of the philosopher-king, he who marries well both thought and action. ...


2

The technology is that of the "Voder" and "Vocoder" exhibited at the 1939 World's Fair in New York City. See the Wikipedia articles on the vocoder and the voder for some explanations and references to Sci Fi movies using it, and to this 1939 film clip. There is a recent pop technology history book How to Wreck a Nice Beach on the subject. The first non ...


2

There's a stop, or set of stops, on many cathedral organs called "vox humana." Granted these can only produce human-like vowel sounds, but that's the first "synth" I know of. Now, prior to modern "text to speech" digital software, there was a period in the 1970s and early 80s when a limited, hardwired, voice synth was available. See for example "Firepower"...


2

Drones fly on the same principles as the ordinary airplanes or helicopters. So the main difficulty in developing of drones was the problem how to control them, not how to make them fly. And this problem of control has nothing to do with birds or insects. Actually airplanes have also little to do with birds and insects because they use different aerodynamic ...


2

In 2006 a fragment of a cogwheel was discovered in Olbia (Italy); the layer where the fragment was found has been dated to the second quarter of the 2nd century BCE (https://www.academia.edu/35795869/Un_frammento_del_Planetario_di_Archimede_da_Olbia, p. 1788). The striking characteristic of this cogwheel, however, is that its teeth are not triangular but ...


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