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I’m afraid he no longer cared. According to Boltzmann biographer E. Broda (1981): (p. 9): One might have thought Boltzmann would, after 1900, in lectures and writings refer to Planck’s work on radiation, made possible by adoption of his own, Boltzmann’s, statistical methods. This was not the case, however. While Boltzmann continued to lecture and publish ...


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Kelvin did not merely believe that vitalism warranted serious scientific consideration, he thought it to be "absolutely forced by science". In less strong terms, it was a popular idea at the time, given the state of both physics and biology. There was also interest in reconciling physics with free will, etc. Helmholtz, Maxwell, and Boltzmann, among others, ...


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The best source of word origins and their earliest usages is the Unabridged Oxford English Dictionary. You need a library subscription. The first meaning could be of mathematical original since n can assume several values Mathematics. Of a function: taking several different values for each value of the variable; many-valued. Cf. monotropic adj. 1. ...


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Although the concept of the existence of the atoms originates from the ancient Greek, for them it was yet more a philosophical concept, they were very far from any experimental proof.1 Later, mainly the chemistry provided the first suggestion that it might be an experimental fact. However, none of these results was strong enough at the time. In the late ...


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The unabridged Oxford English dictionary clarifies the "when" part of the question. Also consult the paper in Nature (1949) https://www.nature.com/articles/163427a0 for the historic discussion (paper is open access). However, the modern reference point is triple point of water, "The Celsius scale is defined using the T.Pt. = 0.01 °C with 1 °C made identical ...


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A piece of info that is key for energy as a concept is Emmy Noether's brilliant work on symmetry and conservation laws. I have not come accross an explanation of the Noether Theorem that I can understand in detail, but I think this wikipedia article provides a good illustration: if a physical process exhibits the same outcomes regardless of place or time, ...


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