Why is the volt not identical to the full name Volta, unlike the other electrical units ohm, ampere, coulomb, tesla, weber and henry? Is there a historical explanation, was the volt introduced at a different time?
The volt, ohm and farad were introduced by the same person, Latimer Clark, a cable engineer, in a paper in 1861. He started the tradition of naming units after scientists. He initially distorted all names: the unit names ohma, volt, galvat (from Galvani), and farad (from Faraday). In his words, he "neglected etymological rules".
In that same year, a committee of the British Association for the Advancement of Science began developing a coherent system of electrical units, the cgs system. Varley, a committee member, liked Clark's proposal, but he advocated adding a French name such as Ampere, to facilitate the international acceptance of the new units ("I should like to introduce a French name into the list. We have Germany, England and Italy represented"). For the same reason he may have pleaded for not distorting the French and German names. In addition, Varley objected to the galvat "because Galvani discovered next to nothing".
Latimer Clark adapted the unit names in his 'Elementary treatise on electrical measurement' (1868). He changed ohma to ohm, and dropped the galvat. Maxwell acknowledged Clark's practical units and their names in his 'Treatise on electricity and magnetism' (1873). In 1881, at the International Electrical Congress in Paris), two French names, ampere and coulomb, were added. The diplomacy worked, and the new system of electrical units was adopted by all countries. The only units that kept the initial name distortion were the volt and the farad.