16

One can only speculate what Hawking will be remembered for, but according to NYT in 2002 he apparently expressed a wish to have what he saw as his biggest accomplishment engraved on his tombstone (following the tradition that goes back at least to Archimedes):"Perhaps in imitation of Boltzmann, Dr. Hawking declared at the end of the meeting that he wanted ...


9

You do not say what field of mathematics you are working in, and perhaps there are signs of separation there. Overall however, lively interaction between mathematics and physics is alive and well. John Baez has a blog This Week's Finds in Mathematical Physics, that is full of contemporary examples of it, so does Terence Tao. Nature, a leading journal in ...


6

Were there published suggestions, or otherwise discussed, that the universe could be expanding before Edwin Hubble observed that more distant galaxies indeed have higher redshift (1929)? Yes. De Sitter published expanding cosmological models in March 1917 in which there was a cosmological constant. Friedman published his models in 1922. People didn't take ...


5

There was no single person who discovered the current estimate of the radius of the observable universe, nor was it discovered at one particular moment in history. A primitive version of the big bang model was first proposed in 1927 by Georges Lemaître. Early observational work that helped to build up the model was done by Vesto Slipher, Henrietta Swan ...


3

The process was not gradual. There were only two astronomers between Ptolemy and Copernicus who independently estimated planetary distances, and it is uncertain if Copernicus was aware of their results, although there are indications that he was of al-Shāṭir's. Some of al-Shāṭir's estimates can be found in Planetary Theory of Ibn al-Shāṭir by Kennedy and ...


3

Recombination is a general term in chemistry for assembling molecules from atoms, ions and radicals, whether or not they were dissociated into them first. So the analogy holds. And the term is directly in line with usage in plasma physics, where it means "a process by which positive ions of a plasma capture a free (energetic) electron and combine with ...


2

The dissonance comes from using the term "multiverse" too loosely. As far as Everett's many worlds and its derivatives, Wheeler supported Everett as his student, but distanced himself from his interpretations. He was committed to Bohr's Copenhagen interpretation with its role of the observers in "shaping" reality. In a letter to Stern he even coopted Everett ...


2

This is an extended comment to Ben Crowell's answer. Friedmann proved that without the "cosmological term" the universe cannot be stationary: has either to expand or contract. As a result of this Einstein introduced the cosmological term to his equations, the thing which he later called "the greatest blunder" in his life. The correct logical conclusion from ...


2

You can only answer your question by a bibliometric analysis over the far and recent past. Luckily, there are nowadays quite a lot of tools to evaluate the data. But this is a research question and some has to do this evaluation or you have to look on google scholar, searching in bibliometrics or philosophy of science journals if someone maybe already has ...


1

From Longair's Cosmic Century it appears that Milne and McCrea introduced comoving radial distance in 1934 in their analysis of Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker expanding universe solutions to general relativity. "They showed that despite the fact that Newtonian mechanics can not provide a fully consistent cosmological model, simple ideas from Newtonian ...


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